ACE-031 Peptide: What Is It & How Does It Work?

Written by: Billy White

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Time to read 3 min

Evidence-based. Last updated: November 23, 2023

ACE-031 is a myostatin inhibitor

It promotes muscle growth and reduces atrophy signalling

It's being researched for muscle wasting conditions like Cachexia and age-related muscle loss, it may be effective for these

ACE-031, a type of myostatin inhibitor, has sparked significant interest in the medical and scientific community for its potential in muscle growth and treatment of muscle-wasting diseases.


It is a fusion protein of activin receptor type IIB and IgG1-Fc, which binds myostatin and related ligands.

How It Works

ACE-031 has various mechanisms of action, including the following.

1. Inhibiting Myostatin

Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily, is a critical regulator of skeletal muscle mass.


Normally, myostatin limits muscle tissue growth, ensuring that muscle size and growth are kept in check.


ACE-031 interferes with this regulation by binding to myostatin, rendering it inactive.


This results in the removal of the physiological brake on muscle growth.

2. Interaction with ActRIIB Receptors

ActRIIB receptors play a role in mediating the effects of myostatin as well as other ligands like activins and growth differentiation factors (GDFs).


By binding to these receptors, ACE-031 disrupts the signaling cascade that typically suppresses muscle cell growth and differentiation.

3. Enhanced Muscle Repair and Regeneration

Beyond promoting muscle hypertrophy (enlargement), ACE-031 may also enhance muscle repair and regeneration.


This aspect is crucial in clinical scenarios like muscle injuries, dystrophies, or age-related muscle loss.

Absorption and Distribution

Following administration, ACE-031 rapidly enters the circulatory system.

It then localizes predominantly in muscle tissues, which are the primary sites of action.

Metabolism and Elimination

ACE-031 is likely metabolized by proteolytic enzymes, similar to other peptides.

It's suggested to have a half-life of approx. 15 days.

Clinical Applications of ACE-031

ACE-031 is primarily explored for conditions like Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and other muscle-wasting diseases.


Its application could extend to age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia) and possibly to certain rehabilitation therapies post-injury.


The potential for misuse in enhancing athletic performance has raised ethical concerns.

Adverse Effects & Safety

Preliminary clinical trials have shown a relatively safe profile, but the long-term effects are not yet fully understood.


Potential side effects could include:

  • imbalances in muscle strength
  • joint problems due to rapid muscle growth
  • impacts on cardiovascular health, tendons, ligaments, etc

Regulatory Status

As of this articles last update, ACE-031 had not received approval from regulatory bodies like the FDA for clinical use.


Its use in non-therapeutic contexts, particularly in sports, raises ethical and fairness issues.


Regulatory agencies and sports governing bodies are closely monitoring its development and potential misuse.

Written by: Billy White

Billy White is an experienced personal trainer, an aspiring bodybuilder, and loves to research. He's passionate about serving the fitness and health community with the highest-quality, study-backed information.

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References

  1. Campbell C, McMillan HJ, Mah JK, Tarnopolsky M, Selby K, McClure T, Wilson DM, Sherman ML, Escolar D, Attie KM. Myostatin inhibitor ACE-031 treatment of ambulatory boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Muscle Nerve. 2017 Apr;55(4):458-464. doi: 10.1002/mus.25268. Epub 2016 Dec 23. PMID: 27462804.
  2. Attie KM, Borgstein NG, Yang Y, Condon CH, Wilson DM, Pearsall AE, Kumar R, Willins DA, Seehra JS, Sherman ML. A single ascending-dose study of muscle regulator ACE-031 in healthy volunteers. Muscle Nerve. 2013 Mar;47(3):416-23. doi: 10.1002/mus.23539. Epub 2012 Nov 21. PMID: 23169607.
  3. Cadena SM, Tomkinson KN, Monnell TE, Spaits MS, Kumar R, Underwood KW, Pearsall RS, Lachey JL. Administration of a soluble activin type IIB receptor promotes skeletal muscle growth independent of fiber type. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010 Sep;109(3):635-42. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00866.2009. Epub 2010 May 13. PMID: 20466801; PMCID: PMC2944638.